Introduction to the Database of British and Irish Labouring-Class Poets and Poetry, 1700-1900
General Editor and Principal Writer: John Goodridge
Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK
Eighteenth-Century Editor: Bridget Keegan
Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
Transition to ‘Laboring-Class Poets Online’, Project Manager: Katie Osborn
University of Notre Dame
Academic Advisory Board
Professor John Barrell (University of York)
Professor Florence Boos (University of Iowa)
Professor William Christmas (San Francisco State University)
Dr Mary-Ann Constantine (Centre for Advanced Welsh
and Celtic Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth)
Professor David Fairer (University of Leeds)
Dr Mina Gorji (Pembroke College, University of Cambridge)
Professor H. Gustav Klaus (University of Rostock)
Dr Simon Kovesi (Oxford Brookes University)
Professor Donna Landry (University of Kent)
Professor James McKusick (University of Montana)
Dr Michael Sanders (University of Manchester)
Professor Kelsey Thornton (formerly Universities of
Birmingham and Newcastle upon Tyne)
Entries written by Tim Burke, Bill Christmas, John Goodridge, Bridget Keegan, Kaye Kossick and Scott McEathron. with contributions by Florence Boos, Ned Newitt, Katie Osborn, Iain Rowley and Dawn Whatman.
This version dated 20 February 2012
(c) copyright the editors and contributors, 2001-2012.
Information from this database may be downloaded and quoted for non-commercial purposes such as teaching and private research, but may not be published in any form without the written permission of the copyright holders.
This database has been developed from the work of a group of scholars who have been working in the field of labouring-class poetry over the past three decades. In additional to our individual research data it holds information extensively compiled by the database editor from bibliographical and other sources. The main section of the database is an alphabetical listing, currently of 1,675 named poets.
Our aim is to compile a concise paragraph on each individual, to include vital dates, a brief biographical and critical summary, key publications and secondary and reference sources. This may then extend via hyperlinks into a fuller set of resources and information leads. The alphabetic listing is preceded by statistical notes and notes on groupings and categories, conventions, sources and abbreviations, and small sample sections of anonymous and pseudonymous poetry.
The database represents all the poets of humble origins we have discovered who lived within the period anywhere in the British Isles (but see the cautions given about our often limited knowledge of Irish and Welsh poets, below), together with a very small number of poets from North America and other countries.
It includes some ‘possibly’ or ‘partially’ self-taught labouring-class figures (for examples, middle class women who had fallen into poverty and in some sense identified themselves with the labouring-class tradition, or individuals about whom little is known, where there are clues that they may be of humble origins), and a few others who are included for comparative purposes (for example, the fact that they were presented, like many of the labouring-class poets, as poetical ‘novelty acts’—boy poets, blind men and women, ‘wandering minstrels’, etc.). Inclusions which are dubious, for these or any other reason, begin with a question mark.
Beyond this caution, we have aimed to be inclusive rather than exclusive, and list many figures who are tentatively identifiable as part of a labouring-class tradition. Our purpose is to discover and recover what we regard as an important and extensive tradition that has been hidden or marginalised, and we have purposely cast our nets wide in order to get a full picture of what exists and what may prove relevant. There are a few pre-1700 and post-1900 figures, included for general and comparative purposes—tagged [OP] for ‘out of period’; otherwise all individuals lived and published in the period 1700-1900. All are published poets (with at least one volume, or periodical publications).
The list currently remains uneven in the amount of detail given, and no doubt still contains typographical and factual errors. The collation process is far from complete, and indeed many of the current entries are merely skeleton entries serving as basic markers for further research. We welcome and will be happy to acknowledge corrections and additions, and we shall continue to post and circulate corrected versions regularly.
To simplify the process of uploading and upgrading the database we have presented it simply ‘Word’ files, this software being the simplest searchable database. However, this has limited our ability to perform category searches: currently our ‘marker’ symbols for searches are limited to [F] [I] [S] [W] and [OP] (explained above and below). As the entries are developed, more complex search terms will be added.
School of Arts & Humanities
Nottingham Trent University
The compilers are grateful to the very many librarians and colleagues who have helped us to gather this information together. The editor would especially like to thank colleagues at Clifton Library, Nottingham Trent University, for help in tracking down information, Bob Heyes for sharing so many of his discoveries from bookseller’s catalogues and the world of antiquarian books, Iain Rowley for compiling entries for six of the women poets during his internship at Nottingham Trent University, Summer 2005, and further entries written in 2007, and Ned Newitt for his information on the Leicester Chartist poets. Florence Boos has very kindly shared with us her database of nineteenth-century working-class Scottish women poets, and her rich research in this field forms the backbone of many of the entries for them included here. Dawn Whatman, currently working on her PhD on labouring-class women poets at NTU, has recently added new entries and further information on this topic. Tim Burke did much to develop the database as an online resource during his time as a researcher at Nottingham Trent University. Dick Ellis strongly supported the development of the database during his time as Head of English at NTU, and fostered institutional support for the project; his successors Lynne Hapgood and Nahem Yousaf have been similarly positive and helpful. Thanks are due to Andrea Hanaray of New Zealand for supplying much information about her ancestor Jessie Russell; to Patrick Regan of the George Heath web page; to Mark Gregory for information on Francis ‘Frank the Poet’ MacNamara, and to Michael Baron, Ronald Blythe, Lorna Clymer, Greg Crossan, David Fairer, Simon Kővesi, Claire Lamont, Tom Leonard, John Lucas, Brian Maidment and David Radcliffe.
Apart from the anonymous, pseudonymous and group productions listed in sections 1-4, there are currently 1,675 named poets in the list (415 of them, about a quarter, currently designated, for one reason or another, uncertain inclusions, with 25 marked ‘OP’ as having published primarily or wholly outside the period 1700-1900).
• 209 of the poets listed are identifiably female [F], about 12% of the total.
• 972 of the named poets, well over half, are currently identified as being of Scottish [S] origin or acculturation (115 of whom, over 12 percent, are women). This reflects both the strength of the record in this material and the higher valuation given to labouring class poets in Scotland which this fuller record reflects, particularly in the nineteenth century.
• 84 of them, around 5%, are identified as Irish [I] origin or acculturation. There is crossover between Scottish and Irish acculturation, since a number of poets moved from one country to the other. Further research on Irish poets is needed.
• 18 of them, just over 1%, are Welsh [W]; however, this statistic should be treated with great caution since nineteenth-century Welsh labouring-class poets often wrote and published in the Welsh language, which we lack the expertise to research. Informal discussion with colleagues in Welsh Studies at Cardiff and Aberystwyth lead us to believe that this is a very considerable gap.
• Although emigration and diaspora issues have not been systematically analyzed, it is worth observing that 16 poets are noted here as having spent time in or emigrated to Australia; 18 to Canada; 10 to New Zealand, and about 50 to the United States, the vast majority in all these cases being from Scotland.
NOTES ON GROUPINGS AND CATEGORIES
(1) Scottish Poets
The most distinctive general category of labouring-class poetry in English, and enormously fertile in terms of cultural and linguistic crossovers with writings in dialect and Lallans and to a lesser extent Scottish Gaelic. Perhaps the most important single factor in the proliferation of Scottish labouring-class poetry was the inclusion of poetry in so many local newspapers and periodical publications such as the People’s Journal and the People’s Friend, with potentially huge readerships, and a permanent need for new poems. There are parallels in England, such as Ben Brierley’s Journal in Manchester, but opportunities were less widespread than in Scotland. A further factor was the richness of late nineteenth-century anthologies of Scottish poetry, most notably D.H. Edwards’ 16 volumes of Modern Scottish Poetry (1880-97), with their biographical headnotes, but a very substantial number of solid regional anthologies. Again there are English parallels, for example in several county anthologies, but the record is much less substantial, and there is less sense of this material being valued. Glasgow and Paisley are the most impritant centres, each with over 100 poets (with some crossover between the two; see more on these below).
Three groups are perhaps especially worth noting.
(a) The Glasgow and Dundee group of poets, centred in the later nineteenth-century around Alex Campbell, radical editor of the Glasgow Sentinel and the Dundee Penny Post, with its ‘Poet’s Corner’, who encouraged many labouring-class poets including Ellen Johnston. There were many other local groups of poets in nineteenth-century Scotland based around newspapers and journals.
(b) The Paisley poets (Bethune, Fleming, Robert Nicoll, Tannahill, Thom, and very many others). See Tom Leonard’s fine anthology, Radical Renfrew, and its predecessor, Brown, which proudly declares that ‘every fifth person in Paisley is a poet’. The weavers of Paisley have been seen as forming a particularly distinctive and prolific group of poets. The Paisley figure of over 100 labouring-class poets is striking for a modestly sized town, and reflects both the large number of weaver-poets in the town, and the willingness of local printers and publishers to take on their verses and songs (reflecting the popularity and marketability of their poems). ‘No town in the empire, nor even the world, we feel certain, has produced so many poets as that of Paisley’, D. H. Edwards wrote in 1881 (Edwards, 3 (1881), 287). For a more careful and sceptical appraisal of the phenomenon of the Paisley weaver-poets see Sandy Hobbs, ‘A Nest of Singing Birds?’, in James & McCrae, 77-85.
(c) Scottish women poets: ‘I have been able to locate roughly three dozen Scottish working class poets [in the Victorian period] who published at least a volume of poetry,’ writes Boos (1995), 55. Thanks largely to Professor Boos’s research this database now has over 100 Scottish female poets—not all with volumes published, however. They include some extremely distinctive and important writers like Janet Hamilton and Ellen Johnston.
Over half of the final volume of Edwards’s Modern Scottish Poets (vol. 16, 1897) is given over to an invaluable series of indexes, which index the full series not only by name (133-60), but by birthplace (161-86) and occupation (187-207), as well as the titles of poems and songs (209-309). The birthplaces and occupations are also usefully summarised in the introduction (x-xi).
(2) Some English city groupings
Amongst the most prolific urban areas are Blackburn with about 40 poets, Greater Manchester with about 50, Newcastle and Durham with about 40, Nottingham and Bristol with about a dozen each. The following examples are all northern English cities, perhaps significantly.
(a) The Manchester group: the most high-profile and prolific English city group in the nineteenth century. The ‘Sun Inn’ group (named after the Manchester pub where they met) went on the launch the Lancashire Authors Association, and contributed to an anthology, The Festive Wreath (1842), edited by John Bolton Rogerson, which included contributions by John Critchley Prince, Isabella Varley, George Richardson, Robert Story, Robert Rose (‘the Bard of Colour’), Elijah Ridings, William Gaspey, Richard Wright Proctor, John Mills, Thomas Arkell Tidmarsh, John Scholes and Eliza Battye. It included Alexander Wilson’s poem ‘The Poet’s Corner’ (first printed as a broadside, also printed in Maidment, 163-6), which was sung at the second meeting of the Lancashire Poetical Soiree and refers to 28 local poets and supporters (their names are annotated by hand by Isabella Vardy on a copy reproduced by Maidment). Ben Brierley’s Journal regularly published verse by other Mancunian labouring-class poets, most notably Fanny Forrester.
(b) Tyneside poets, documented in Allan’s Tyneside Song, and Rhymes of the Northern Bards; among them are many printers and other city artisans, and a very strong contingent of mineworkers, of whom Joseph Skipsey is the best known. The output of song rather than other kinds of verse is striking, perhaps because of its sociability, and the many outlets available for song (in ‘free and easies’, public houses, clubs, theatres and music halls, and perhaps also because the difficulties in finding the materials, space and time to write longhand—eloquently described by Skipsey). Songs can far more easily be composed orally and are generally short. There were some traditions of competitive song and verse writing among Tyneside coalminers, reflected in the work of poets like Robert Elliott.
(c) The Nottingham group (around the Howitts’ bookshop: Danby, Millhouse, Plumb, Miller, Giles, F. Enoch; led by Spencer T. Hall); Lee.
(d) The Blackburn group. James names Dugdale and Gaspey, Maidment has Ince, Baron and Hull.
(e) The Bradford group (centred around Holroyd’s stationary shop and newspaper).
(f) The Sheffield group (Elliott, Montgomery), identified by James.
(3) Occupational and other Presentational Groupings
(a) Professions and roles
Most prominent are weavers, and shoemaker poets (‘Sons of Crispin’: see Winks; Crispin Anecdotes; and Hobsbawm & Scott, especially the sources listed on 90n25).
There are about 130 shoemakers and over 230 weavers of one sort or other. One could also identify many other work groupings such as coal and lead miners (about 40 are named as such), tailor-poets, military (army and navy) poets, and many others including approximately 32 painters, 17 policemen, 18 postmen, even seven hairdressers. Edwards, 16, includes an index of professions for all of his Scottish poets. Particularly in Scotland, a number of rural occupations are used as identification: thus there are 30 identified shepherds, and about 25 herders.
The weavers have a strong identity, especially in local groups like Paisley (see above), but the shoemakers retain the strongest self-identity as a group even after becoming poets. The novelty aspect of a poet’s labouring profession is used in other soubriquets, thus Alexander McGilvray is ‘The Rhyming Baker’, William Cruickshank ‘The Rhyming Molecatcher’. Such habits of presentation pre-dates even Stephen Duck’s presentation to the public in 1730 as ‘The Thresher Poet’, so that for example the ferryman John Taylor in the early seventeenth century was ‘The Water Poet’, John Clavel the ‘Highwayman Poet’.
(b) Locality and character
Local identification is also prominent, especially in the later period: thus Spencer T. Hall is ‘The Sherwood Forester’, Joseph Gwyer ‘The Penge Poet’, Francis Davis ‘The Belfast Man’, John Clare ‘The Northamptonshire Peasant’ (his publishers’ rather than his own term, which Clare often comically mis-spelled as ‘pheasant’).
Some broader categories are used in self-identification, thus, among the women poets for example, Ellen Johnson boldly and clearly styles herself ‘The Factory Girl’, Sarah Parker Douglas (who had emigrated, like many others, from Ireland to Scotland) ‘The Irish Girl’. Mary MacPherson, who wrote in Gaelic and English, acquired a Gaelic soubriquet which translates as ‘Big Mary of the Songs’. There is even a poet known as ‘The Licentious Poet’, the Northumberland miller Thomas Whittell (1683-1736), working in the tradition of comic verse entertainment also associated with Ned Ward and various publican poets.
(c) Precocious and/or tragic youth
Youth is sometime used as an identifier, so there are a number of boy poets as well as a pair of prodigious young sisters, Harriett and Maria Falconar. Precocious and/or tragic youths form distinct group, not necessarily labouring-class but presented to the world in a very similar way, as a kind of miracle of nature. Lonsdale’s headnote on Maria and Harriett Falconar, (1989), 451, briefly discusses the phenomenon and lists a number of them. They are mainly included in the present database where they are of identifiable labouring-class origin.
A pair of later examples (not included in the database) are John Buchannan of Whitby, who published Albert: a poem in two cantos. Hilda; and other poems (London, 1828, 2nd edn 1831) when he was under eighteen (Johnson 46, nos. 274-5), and Janet Wilkinson, who published Sketches and Legends amid the Mountains of North Wales: in verse (London, 1840), aged 15 (Johnson 46, no. 254).
High mortality rates cut off a number of young poets in their teens or early twenties, and they were sometimes, like Chatterton or Keats, subsequently celebrated by anthologists and critics as prodigious or tragic phenomena; several are included. Crossan (31) comments on the fact that John Clare had in his library ‘an alarming number of volumes by poets who died young—Keats at 25, Richard Gall at 24, Henry Kirke White at 21, Chatterton at 17, William Thimbleby at 16, Edward Lenton at 15’.
(d) Disability / blindness / health issues
Disability, particularly blindness, is also used as an identifier, and there are at least 25 ‘blind poets’ in the listing, as well as a number of individuals who suffered the loss of limbs or hands, or became paralysed or otherwise disabled, often in industrial accidents. Health breakdown, particularly associated with periods in mining work, may be given as a reason for the person having turned to verse, or a reason to appeal for subscribers or readers.
The image of the ‘blind poet’ both evokes sympathy and appeals to an ancient perceived special relationship between poetry and blindness, most prominently in Milton and supposedly Homer. Accounts of disability and poor health may contribute to the idea of the labouring-class poet as having to strive against multiple disadvantages, and therefore as being worthy of sympathetic support
(4) Political and social themes, genres and key influences
(a) The ‘School of Duck’ and other focuses of influence.
Poets including Robert Tatersal and Mary Collier directly responded to the success of Duck’s ‘The Thresher’s Labour’ in creating their own equivalent bodies of work. Several other figures could be similarly cited as forming, or drawing out a ‘school’ of labouring-class writers, most prominently Burns, but to a lesser extent Clare, Bloomfield, and some of the more influential later nineteenth-century figures.
There is also a case to be made for the key influence of particular canonical writers, such as Pope’s influence on many eighteenth-century women poets. The LC collections include thematic indexes charting both canonical and ‘labouring class’ as well as popular and folk influences on the poets.
(b) Chartist Poetry
The most important focus for labouring-class poets of the mid-nineteenth century., often published in The Northern Star. There are selections in Ashraf, Kovalev and Shencker of Chartist poets, often published anonymously, pseudonymously, or under their initial or initials; see also Maidment (1987), 46. There are 55 named poets identified as Chartists in the main database; see especially the entries by Ned Newitt.
Institutions such as the mechanics institutes, literary and philosophical societies, civic and other libraries also became centres of activity for autodidactic poets in the nineteenth century, and in some cases, important instruments of publication and distribution, supplementing older patronage systems. Thus for example, Henry Houlding’s beautifully and expensively produced and illustrated volume, Rhymes and Dreams: Legends of Pendle Forest, and Other Poems (1895), was published in Burnley ‘by B. Moore for the Joint Committee of the Literary and Scientific Club and the Literary and Philosophical Society’.
(c) Broadsides, popular verses and songs by concert hall artists and balladeers.
Hepburn notes that ‘in the course of looking at many tens of thousands of copies of [broadside] ballads, I have come across perhaps three hundred names of authors. Very few names are associated with more than one ballad’ (I, 39). The rise of the ‘free and easies’ and the music halls can be associated with a surge of popular publication in these areas, often labouring-class in origin, much of it, like folk song, essentially anonymous.
(d) Popular and dialect verses and songs
These were often named and produced by well-known figures such as Samuel Laycock and Edwin Waugh in Manchester, or Joe Wilson and Tommy Armstrong on Tyneside, but the line between named poets and anonymous popular and folk verses is often blurred.
(e) ‘Lays of the Cotton Famine’
Popular poems and songs from the period of recession in the Lancashire cotton industry, c. 1862-64, some anonymous, some by named labouring-class poets, notably Samuel Laycock, often circulated in broadsides, and clearly popular; ref Harland, 489-516. Particular events or historical phenomena could often produce a surge of responses among labouring-class poets. Thus for example the Hartley colliery disaster of 1862 drew poems from Joseph Skipsey, Joe Wilson, Orlando Wright and others: on this event and Skipsey’s response see Goodridge (2005).
[LC] references at the end of entries indicate that these poets are included in our six-volume Labouring-Class Poets series (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2003 and 2006). For more information on this project please visit these web pages:
Other markers used at the end of entries are [OP] for ‘Out of Period’, [F] for female poets, and [I], [S] and [W] for Irish, Scottish and Welsh poets.
Surnames beginning Mac, Mc and M’ are all filed under Mac.
Where two poets have the same full name, they are filed chronologically by date of birth if known, or the period in which they flourished if not.
SOURCES AND ABBREVIATIONS
Note: the sources listed here have not all been exhaustively searched. Many of the early Scottish anthologies listed are available online, especially at archive.org.
ABC Armstrong, Isobel, Joseph Bristow and Cath Sharrock (eds), Nineteenth-Century Women Poets (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).
Allan Allan, Thomas, Allan’s Illustrated Edition of Tyneside Songs and Readings, with Lives, Portraits, and Autographs of the Writers, revised edition (Newcastle upon Tyne: Thomas & George Allan, 1891).
Andrews Andrews, William, Modern Yorkshire Poets (Hull: A. Brown & Sons; London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co, 1885). [Note that the copy of Edwards, 7 in the NTU special collection is inscribed by Edwards ‘To William Andrews, with warm regards, dated September 1884’]
Ashraf (1975) Ashraf, Mary (ed), Political Verse and Song from Britain and Ireland (East Berlin: Seven Seas Publishers, 1975).
Ashraf (1978) Ashraf, Mary, Introduction to Working-Class Literature in Great Britain (East Berlin, 1978), two vols: Part I. Poetry.
Ashton & Roberts Ashton, Owen and Roberts, Stephen, The Victorian Working Class Writer (London and New York: Mansell, 1999).
Backscheider Backscheider, Paula R, Eighteenth-Century Women Poets and Their Poetry: Inventing Agency, Inventing Genre (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).
Backscheider & Ingrassia Backscheider, Paula R. and Ingrassia, Catherine E. (eds), British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009).
Barrell & Bull Barrell, John and Bull, John (eds), The Penguin Book of English Pastoral verse (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974).
Basker Basker, James G. (ed), Amazing Grace: An Anthology of Poems about Slavery 1660-1810 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002).
Bissett Bisset, Alex. M. (ed), The Poets and Poetry of Linlithgowshire: An Anthology of the County (Paisley: J. and R. Parlane, 1896).
BL British Library.
Blunden Blunden, Edmund, Nature in English Literature (London: Hogarth Press, 1929)
Boos (1995) Boos, Florence, ‘Cauld Engle-Cheek: Working-Class Women Poets in Victorian Scotland’, Victorian Poetry, 33, no. 1 (1995), 53-70.
Boos (1998) Boos, Florence, ‘“We would know again the fields…”: The rural poetry of Elizabeth Campbell, Jane Stevenson, and Mary MacPherson’, Tulsa Studies in Women’s Writing, 1640-1867 (Autumn 1998), 25-47.
Boos (2001) Boos, Florence, ‘Working-Class Women Poets and the Periodical Press: ‘Marie’, Janet Hamilton, and Fanny Forrester’, Victorian Poetry 39.2 (2001), 255-86.
Boos (2008) Boos, Florence (ed), Working-Class Women Poets in Victorian Britain (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview press, 2008).
Borland Borland, R., Yarrow: Its Poets and Poetry, 2nd Edn (Galashiels: A. Walker & Son, 1908).
Brown Brown, Robert, Paisley Poets, with Brief Memoirs of Them, and Selections from Their Poetry, two vols (Paisley: J. & J. Cook, 1889-90).
Burmester English books by and related to women (book catalogue issued by James Burmester Rare Books, catalogue 38, undated)
Cafarelli Cafarelli, Annette Wheeler, ‘The Romantic “Peasant” Poets and their Patrons’, The Wordsworth Circle, 26 (1995), 77-87.
Carpenter Carpenter, Andrew (ed), Verse in English from Eighteenth-Century Ireland (Cork: Cork University Press, 1998)
CBEL The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, ed. by F.W. Bateson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), four volumes plus supplement (I-V)
CBEL3 The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature: IV, 1800-1900, third edition, ed by Joanne Shattock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Christmas Christmas, William J., The Lab’ring Muses: Work, Writing, and the Social Order in English Plebeian Poetry, 1730-1830 (Newark: University of Delaware Press and London: Associated University Presses, 2001).
COPAC Copyright library catalogue (online resource).
Copsey (2002) Copsey, Tony, Suffolk Writers who were born between 1800-1900 (n.p., 2002)
Craik [Craik, G L], The Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties; illustrated by anecdotes (London: Charles Knight, 1830-1), two vols.
Cranbrook Parnassian Molehill: An Anthology of Suffolk Verse, by The Earl of Cranbrook , with a new preface by Ronald Blythe (Aldeburgh: The Aldeburgh Bookshop, 2001).
Crawford Crawford, Thomas, Love, Labour and Liberty: The Eighteenth-Century Scottish Lyric (Cheadle: Carcanet, 1976).
Cross Cross, Nigel, The Common Muse: Life in Nineteenth-Century Grub Street (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), esp. chapter 4: The Labouring Muse: Working-Class Writers and Middle-Class Culture, 126-63.
Crockett Crockett, W. S. (ed), Minstrelsy of the Merse: The Poets and Poetry of Berwickshire, a County Anthology (Paisley: J. and R. Parlane, 1893).
Crossan Crossan, Greg, ‘Clare’s Debt to the Poets in His Library’, John Clare Society Journal, 9 (1991), 27-41.
Curran Curran, Stuart, ‘Isabella Lickbarrow and Mary Bryan: Wordsworthian Poets’, The Wordsworth Circle, 27, no. 2 (1996), 113-28.
Davis and Joyce Davis, Gwenn, and Beverley A. Joyce (compilers), Poetry by Women to 1900: A Bibliography of American and British Writers (Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1991).
DNB Dictionary of National Biography. (See also ODNB).
Dobell Dobell, Percy J. (compiler) A Catalogue of XVIIIth Century Verse and a Catalogue of Books by and Relating to Dr. Jonathan Swift (London: P.J. & A.E. Dobell, 1933), Catalogue no. 99.
Douglas Douglas, Sir George (ed), Poems of the Scottish Minor Poets, from the age of Ramsay to David Gray (London and New York: Walter Scott, ), Canterbury Poets series.
Edwards Edwards, D. H. (ed) Modern Scottish Poets, with Biographical and Critical Notices (Brechin: Edwards, 1880-97), 16 volumes (note that vol. 1, the first series, has major pagination anomalies in its first 60 pages, affecting the accuracy of the contents page and the indexes to the series, esp. in vol. 16):
1 First Series, 1880
2 Second Series, 1881
3 Third Series, 1881
4 Fourth Series, 1882
5 Fifth Series, 1883
6 Sixth Series, 1883
7 Seventh Series, 1884
8 Eighth Series, 1885
9 Ninth Series, 1886
10 Tenth Series, 1887
11 Eleventh Series, 1888
12 Twelfth Series, 1889
13 Thirteenth Series, 1890
14 Fourteenth Series, 1891
15 Fifteenth Series, 1893
16 Sixteenth Series, 1897
ESTC English Short Title Catalogue http://www.bl.uk/collections/early/holdingenglish.html
Eyre-Todd George Eyre-Todd (ed), Scottish Poetry of the Eighteenth Century (Glasgow, 1896), 2 vols.
Foxon Foxon, David F., English verse 1701-1750: A Catalogue of Separately Printed Poems with Notes on Contemporary Collected Editions (London: Cambridge University Press, 1975), 2 volumes.
Fullard Fullard, Joyce (ed), British Women Poets 1660-1800: An Anthology (Troy, NY: The Whiston Publishing C, 1990).
Glasgow Poets George Eyre-Todd (ed), The Glasgow Poets: Their Lives and Poems (Paisley: Alexander Gardner, 1906).
GM The Gentleman’s Magazine (founded 1731)
Goodridge (1989) Goodridge, John, ‘Some Predecessors of Clare: “Honest Duck”’, John Clare Society Journal, 8 (1989), 5-10.
Goodridge (1990) Goodridge, John, ‘Some Predecessors of Clare: 2, The Response to Duck’, John Clare Society Journal, 9 (1990), 17-26.
Goodridge (1999) Goodridge, John, ‘Rowley’s Ghost: a Checklist of Creative Works Inspired by Thomas Chatterton’s Life and Writings’, in Thomas Chatterton and Romantic Culture, ed. by Nick Groom (London: Macmillan, 1999), 262-92.
Goodridge (2005) Goodridge, John, ‘Some Rhetorical Strategies in Later Nineteenth-Century Laboring-Class Poetry’, Criticism, 47, no. 4 (Fall 2005), 531-47.
Harland Harland, John, Ballads and Songs of Lancashire (Part 2, Modern), corrected, revised and enlarged by T.T. Wilkinson (East Ardsley, Wakefield: EP Publishing limited, 1976), facsimile edition based on the third edition of 1882.
Harp R The Harp of Renfrewshire: A Collection of Songs and Other Poetical Pieces (Paisley: Alex Gardner, 1972), first pub. 1819.
Harp S William Harvey, The Harp of Stirlingshire (Paisley: J & R. Parlane, 1897)
Harper Harper, Malcolm McL., The Bards of Galloway: A Collection of Poems, Songs, Ballads., &c, by Natives of Galloway (Dalbeattie: Thomas Fraser, 1889).
Harvey Harvey, A.D., ‘Working-Class Poets and Self-Education’, Contemporary Review, May 1999.
Heinzelman Heinzelman, Kurt, ‘The Uneducated Imagination: Romantic Representations of Labor’, in At the Limits of Romanticism: Essays in Cultural, Feminist, and Materialist Criticism, ed. by Mary A. Favret and Nicola J. Watson (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1994), 101-24.
Hepburn Hepburn, James, A Book of Scattered Leaves: Poetry of Poverty in Broadside Ballads of Nineteenth-Century England (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2001), 2 vols.
Hewitt Hewitt, John (ed), Rhyming Weavers & other Country Poets of Antrim & County Down (Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 1974, 2004)
Hobday Hobday, Charles, ‘Two Sansculotte Poets: John Freeth and Joseph Mather’, in Writing and Radicalism, ed. by John Lucas (London and New York: Longman, 1996).
Hobsbawm &Scott Hobsbawm, E.J. and Joan Wallace Scott, ‘Political Shoemakers’, Past and Present, 89 (1980), 86-114.
Hollingworth Hollingworth, Brian (ed), Songs of the People: Lancashire Dialect Poetry of the Industrial Revolution (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977).
Hold Hold, Trevor (ed), A Northamptonshire Garland (Northampton: Northamptonshire Libraries, 1989).
Hood Hood, Edwin Paxton, The Literature of Labour (1851), expanded and developed in The Peerage of Poverty (fifth edition and final form, 1870).
Howitt Howitt, William, Homes and Haunts of the Most Eminent English Poets (London and New York: George Routledge & Co, 1847, fourth edition, 1858).
Hull Hull, George (ed), Poets and Poetry of Blackburn (Blackburn, 1902).
Jackson (1985) Jackson, J.R. de R., Annals of English Verse 1770-1835. A preliminary survey of the volumes published (New York & London: Garland Publishing, 1985).
Jackson (1993) Jackson, J.R. de J., Romantic Poetry by Women, A Bibliography, 1770-1835 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).
James James, Louis, Fiction for the Working Man 1830-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), Appendix I: Working-Class Poets and Poetry, 171-9. [Note: there are many small errors in this—names, titles, dates.]
James & McRae James, Stuart and Gordon McCrae (ed), The Paisley Poets: A Critidcal Reappraisal of their Work and Reputation (Paisley: University of Paisley Library, 1993).
Janowitz Janowitz, Anne, Lyric and Labour in the Romantic Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Jarndyce The Romantics 1790-1850 (book catalogue issued by Jarndyce Antiquarian Booksellers, catalogue 124, Spring 1998).
JCSJ John Clare Society Journal
JCSN John Clare Society Newsletter
Johnson Johnson, C.R., Provincial Poetry 1789-1839: British Verse Printed in the Provinces: The Romantic Background (London: Jed Press, 1992).
Johnson 46 C.R. Johnson, Catalogue 46, catalogue of antiquarian books for sale issued by C.R. Johnson Rare Book Collections, 2003.
Keegan (2003) Keegan, Bridget, ‘Snowstorms, shipwrecks and scorching heat: eighteenth-century leabouring-class locodescriptive poetry’, Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 10, no. 1 (Winter 2003), 75-96.
Keegan (2008) Keegan, Bridget, British Labouring-Class Nature Poetry, 1730-1837 (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
Klaus (1985) Klaus, H. Gustav, The Literature of Labour: 200 Years of Working-Class Writing (Brighton: Harvester 1985), esp. Ch. 1: Plebeian poets in eighteenth-century England.
Klaus (1998) Klaus, H. Gustav, Factory Girl: Ellen Johnstone and Working-Class Poetry in Victorian Scotland (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1998), Scottish Studies International, Volume 23.
Knox Knox, James (ed), Airdrie Bards, Past and Present (Airdrie: Baird & Hamilton, 1930), ‘Issued by the Airdrie Burns Club’.
Kovalev Kovalev, V., Anthology of Chartist Literature (Moscow, 1956).
Landry (1990) Donna Landry, The Muses of Resistance: Laboring-class Women’s Poetry in Britain 1739-1796 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Landry (2003) Donna Landry, ‘The Labouring-Class Women Poets: Hard Labour we most chearfully pursue,’ in Sarah Prescott and David Shuttleton (eds.), Women and Poetry, 1660-1750 (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp. 223-43.
Leonard Leonard, Tom, Radical Renfrew: poetry from the French Revolution to the First World War by poets born or sometime resident in, the County of Renfrewshire (Edinburgh: Polygon, 1990).
LION Literature Online
Lonsdale (1984) Lonsdale, Roger, The New Oxford Book of Eighteenth-Century Verse (Oxford and New York: Oxford University press, 1984).
Lonsdale (1989) Lonsdale, Roger, Eighteenth-Century Women Poets (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, corrected softback edition, 1990).
Macdonald Shaw Macdonald Shaw, Clare, ‘Some Contemporary Women Poets in Clare’s Library’, in John Goodridge (ed), The Indepenent Spirit: John Clare and the Self-Taught Tradition (Helpston: The John Clare Society, 1994), 87-122.
Macleod Macleod, Donald, Poets and Poetry of the Lennox (Dumbarton: Bennett & Thomson; Glasgow: Thomas Murray & Son, 1889)
Maidment (1983) Maidment, Brian, ‘Essayists and Artizans: The Making of Nineteenth-Century Self-Taught poets’, Literature and History, 9, pt. 1 (1983), 74-91.
Maidment (1987) Maidment, Brian (ed), The Poorhouse Fugitives: Self-Taught Poets and Poetry in Victorian Britain (Manchester: Carcanet, (1987).
MBP3 Minor British Poets 1789-1918: Part Three: The Later Victorian Period 1870-1899 (Davis, California: The Library, University of California, Davis, 1986).
Miles Miles, Alfred H. (ed), The Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Century, ten volumes (1891 and various later editions).
Miller Miller, Frank, The Poets of Dumfriesshire (Glasgow: James Maclehose & Son, 1910)
Milne (1999) Milne, Anne, ‘“Lactilla Tends Her Fav’rite Cow”: Domesticated Animals and Women in Eighteenth-Century British Labouring-Class Women’s Poetry’, PhD Dissertation, McMaster University, 1999.
Milne (2001) Milne, Anne, ‘Gender, Class, and the Beehive: Mary Collier’s “The Woman’s Labour” (1739) as Nature Poem’, Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and the Environment, 8, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 111-29.
Murdoch Murdoch, Alexander G. (ed), The Scottish Poets Recent and Living (Glasgow and London, 1883).
Murray Murray, Norman, The Scottish Handloom Weavers 1790-1850: A Social History.
NCBEL The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature
NCSTC Nineteenth-Century Short-title Catalogue
NLS National Library of Scotland
NRA National Register of Archives. This indicates that a search of the NRA web page http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nra/ has shown an archival holding. The relevant location is usually indicated in brackets.
NTU Nottingham Trent University, Libraries and Learning Resources, Special Collections, The Raymond Williams Collection: Labouring Class Poetry. A full online catalogue of this collection is available online.
Philips Phillips, Bill, ‘The Silence of the Shepherds: The Fate of Peasant Poets in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, in Rosa Gonzalez (ed) Culture and Power: Institutions (Barcelona, 1996), 211-20.
ODNB Oxford Dictionary of Nastional Biography (2004), online edition.
Poole Poole, Charles Henry (ed), Warwickshire Poets (London: N. Ling & Co, 1914), Poets of the Shires series.
Poole & Markland Poole, Charles Henry and Russell Markland (eds), Staffordshire Poets (Lytham: N. Ling & Co, 1928), Poets of the Shires series.
Powell [Powell, David], ‘Clare’s Library’, in his Catalogue of the John Clare Collection in the Northampton Public Library (Northampton: County Borough of Northampton, 1964), 23-34 (items numbered 88-409).
Radcliffe Radcliffe, David Hill (ed), Spenser and the Tradition: English Poetry, 1759-1830, major scholarly database and corpus of texts, available online at http://spenserians.cath.vt.edu/
Reid Reid, Alan, The Bards of Angus and the Mearns: An Anthology of the Counties (Paisley: J. & R. Parlane, 1897).
Reilly (1994) Reilly, Catherine W., Late Victorian poetry, 1880-1899: an annotated biobibliography (London and New York: Mansell, 1994).
Reilly (2000) Reilly, Catherine W., Mid-Victorian poetry, 1860-1879: an annotated biobibliography (London: Mansell, 2000).
Richardson Richardson, Alan, Literature, Education, and Romanticism: Reading as Social Practice, 1780-1832 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Ricks Ricks, Christopher (ed), The New Oxford Book of Victorian Verse (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
Rizzo Rizzo, Betty, ‘The Patron as Poet Maker: The Politics of Benefaction’, Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture, 20 (1990), 241-66.
RLF Cross, Nigel, The Royal Literary Fund 1790-1918: An Introduction to the Fund’s History and archives with an index of applicants (London: World Microfilm Publications, 1984) [references to the index are given in the form ‘RLF no. xxx’]
Ross Ross, John D., Scottish Poets in America, with Biographical and Critical Notices (New York: Pagan and Ross, 1889)
Røstvig Røstvig, Maren-Sofie, The Happy Man: Studies in the Metamorphoses of a Classical Ideal, second edition (Oslo and New York, 1971).
Rowton Rowton, Frederick, The Female Poets of Great Britain Chronologically Arranged with Copious Selections and Critical Remarks , facsimile edition, with an Introduction by Marilyn L. Williamson (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1981).
Sambrook Sambrook, James, ‘Some Heirs of Goldsmith: Poets of the Poor in the Late Eighteenth Century’, Studies in Burke and His Time 11 (1970), 1348-61.
Scheckner Scheckner, Peter (ed), An Anthology of Chartist Poetry: Poetry of the British Working Class, 1830s-1850s (London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1989).
Shiach Shiach, Morag, Discourse on Popular Culture: Class, Gender and History in Cultural Analysis, 1730 to the Present (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989).
Southey Southey, Robert, The Lives and Works of Our Uneducated Poets, ed. by J.S. Childers (London: Oxford University Press, 1925). First pub. as Attempts in Verse, by John Jones, an Old Servant; with Some account of the Writer, Written by Himself; and an Introductory Essay on the Lives and Works of Uneducated Poets, by Robert Southey, Esq., Poet Laureate (London, 1831)
Sparke Sparke, Archibald, Bibliographia Boltoniensis (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1913).
Taylor Geoffrey Taylor (ed), Irish Poets of the Nineteenth Century (London: Routledge, Kegan & Paul, 1951), Muses Library series.
Tinker Tinker, Chauncey Brewster, Nature’s Simple Plan: A Phase of Radical Thought in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (Princeton and London: Princeton University Press and Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1922).
Todd (1987) Janet Todd (ed), A Dictionary of British and American Women Writers 1660-1800 (London: Methuen, 1987)
Turner Turner, J. Horsfall, Halifax Books and Authors, (Brighouse: the ‘News’ Office, 1906).
Tytler Tytler, Sarah and J. L. Watson, The Songstresses of Scotland (London: Strahan & Co, 1871), 2 vols.
Unwin Unwin, Rayner, The Rural Muse: Studies in the Peasant Poetry of England (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1954).
Vicinus (1969) Vicinus, Martha, ‘The Lowly Harp: A Study of Nineteenth-Century Working-Class Poetry’, PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1969.
Vicinus (1970) Vicinus, Martha, ‘The Study of 19th-Century British Working-Class Poetry’, in The Politics of Literature: Dissenting Essays on the Teaching of English, ed. by Louis Kampf and Paul Lauter (New York: Random House, 1970), 322-53.
Vicinus (1973) Vicinus, Martha, ‘Literary Voices of an Industrial Town: Manchester, 1810-70’, in The Victorian City: Images and Realities, ed. by H.J. Dyos and Michael Wolff (London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973), 739-61.
Vicinus (1974) Vicinus, Martha, The Industrial Muse: Nineteenth-Century British Working-Class Literature (Croom Helm, 1974); developed from Vicinus (1969), with substantive changes.
Vincent Vincent, David, Bread, Knowledge and Freedom: A Study of Nineteenth-Century Working Class Autobiography (London and New York: Methuen, 1981).
Walker Walker, William, The Bards of Bon-Accord, 1375-1860 (Aberdeen: J & J.P. Edmond & Spark, 1887).
wcwp Factory Girls and Serving Maids: Victorian Working-Class Women Poets Archive (online database) http://wcwp.english.dal.ca/about.html
Welford Welford, Richard, Men of Mark ’Twixt Tyne and Tweed, three volumes (London: Walter Scott, 1895).
Williams Williams, John, ‘Displacing Romanticism: Anna Seward, Joseph Weston and the Unschooled Sons of Genius’, in Placing and Displacing Romanticism, ed. by Peter J. Kitson (London: Ashgate, 2001), 48-59.
Wilson Wilson, James Grant (ed), The Poems and Poetry of Scotland from the Earliest to the Present Times, (London, Glasgow and Edinburgh, 1876), two volumes.
Winks Winks, William Edward, Lives of Illustrious Shoemakers (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1883)
Worrall Worrall, David, Radical Culture: Discourse, Resistance and Surveillance, 1790-1820 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992)
Wright Wright, W. H. Kearsley, West Country Poets: Their Lives and Works (London, 1896).
Zlotnick Zlotnick, Susan, Woman, Writing and the Industrial Revolution (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).
SELECTED ANONYMOUS POEMS
? Anon., ‘A Poem Descriptive of the Manners of the Clothiers…1730’. Ref LC, 1, 121-6; E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class, 300-1, Christmas, 71-2. [LC 1]
Anon [‘J.M.’], The Country-man‘s Miscellany (1732), includes ‘On the Sun’ in close imitation of Duck. Ref Christmas, 85-6.
Anon, ‘Drake upon Duck. A Poem,’ (1735). ref Christmas, 94.
? Anon, The Drought (1740), three lines quoted in Dorothy Marshall, Eighteenth-Century England (Harlow: Longman, 1962), 475n.
? Anon, ‘The Linen Weaver’ 1760 [not s/t?}.
? Anon [‘A Salopian butcher’], St. Alkmond’s Ghost. A visionary poem (Birmingham, 1760). [ESTC MF: 6084, #11]
Anon. [‘An unletter’d bard’], pub. Poems on Several Occasions, chiefly pastoral (1781). Ref Keegan (2008), 66-68; ESTC. [LC 3].
Anon [‘J.B.’], Laura; or, the Fall of Innocence: a poem (London: E. Macklew 1787), 36 pages, with a prefatory address to the public‚ signed J. B. (the author is ‘Without education, and bred to a mechanical employment, laborious, even to drudgery’—quoted by Harvey). Ref Harvey, BL 11630.e.17.(11.) .
Anon. [‘A friend to all mankind’] The Wrongs of Almoona, or, the African’s Revenge (1788) [LC 3].
Anon [‘T. F***, Plebeius’], ‘On the happy recovery of his Majesty’ (‘What British heart can chuse but sing’), dated Northampton, 7 March 1789. ‘The following concise and elegant poem, which breathes piety towards God, and a cordial affection to the King, is the genuine production of a poor, and half blind, working shoe-maker. He knew nothing of the publication, till it appeared in print, and knows as little now of this second impression, which its own intrinsic merit induced a charitable gentleman to promote.’
Anon [‘a journeyman carpenter’], ‘To Mr. R. Bloomfield’, in Bloomfield, Remains, I, 157.
Anon, [a ploughman of Galloway], Rhymes at random, by a Gallovidian ploughman (Colchester, 1838), dedicated to Allan Cunningham. Ref Johnson, 751.
Anon, The Weaver’s Saturday, A Political Poem inscribed to J.C. Symons Esq., Her Majesty’s Commissioner on the Hand Loom Weavers Enquiry (Glasgow, 1838). Ref inf. Bridget Keegan.
Anon [‘F.R.’, a draper] The year of the jubilee. A poem, commemorative of the centenary of Wesleyan Methodism, 1839 (Beverley, ). Ref Johnson, item 733.
? Anon, Influences: or, the Poor Man’s Priest, and Other Poems (London, 1862). Ref Reilly (2000), 240.
Anon [‘W.C.’], ‘The Mill-Hands’ Petition’, c. 1862-4. Ref Harland, 490.
Anon [‘A Working Man’], Lorne and Louise: A Republican Rhyme (Paisley, 1869)
Anon [‘A Manchester Operative’], ‘Just Instinct and Brute Reason’. Ref Maidment (1987), 47-8.
SELECTED PSEUDONYMOUS POETS
‘Bill o’th’Hoylus End’: see Wright, William, section 5.
‘Blind Willie’: see Purvis, William, section 5.
‘A Factory Girl’, Poetics Thoughts in Working Hours By a Factory Girl. Derby: Richard Keene, 1853. Link: wcwp
‘A Factory Girl’, The Cotton Famine and the Lancashire Operatives (1862). Ref Vicinus, 330, ABC, 575-6.
‘Evanus the Song-smith’, Rhymes from a rhyming forge (Birmingham, 1897). Ref Reilly (1994), 156.
‘E. H. ’, a servant in a parsonage, placed in Stafford lunatic asylum for ten weeks in 1882, pub. A bitter cry from the ploughfield (London, 1885). Ref Reilly (1994), 203.
‘Fanchon’, Work-a-day poems (London, 1895). Ref Reilly (1994), 160.
? ‘Simon Hedges’. The Poor Man’s Prayer. Addressed to the Earl of Chatham. An Elegy. By Simon Hedges, a Kentish Labourer (London, 1766) [ESTC mf: 3884 #5]; reprinted in 1797 in Poetry, Original and Selected, where it is attributed to ‘Dr. Roberts’ (therefore possibly not by a labouring-class poet).
‘Leeds Mechanic’, Tones from the lyre, by a Leeds mechanic (Edinburgh, 1873). Ref Reilly (2000), 271.
‘Marie’ (fl. 1847-50), factory dye worker in Chorley, published principally in The People’s Journal. Ref LC 5, 229-44; Maidment (1987), 218-23; Zlotnick, 212-13; Boos (2008), 185-95. Link: wcwp [LC 5]
? ‘Owd Weighvur’, Warty rhymes for warty folks; by th’owd wieghvur (Saddleworth, 1894). Ref Reilly (1994), 364.
‘Outsider’, a man of Constitution Hill, London SW, ‘probably a vagrant’ (Reilly), The ins and the outs: or, six of one and half-a-dozen to the other, by an outsider (London, 1861). Ref Reilly (2000), 352.
‘Peregrine Pickle, Junior’, a quarryman, The Old Whig’s crone: a political satire (Kilmarnock, 1877). Ref Reilly (2000), 367.
‘Sailor”, orphaned in childhood, went to sea at twelve, The Privateer: a metrical romance, by a sailor (London, 1874). Ref Reilly (2000), 404.
‘Stir(r)up’ (b. 1824), shoemaker, individual poems published in newspapers in Kirkintilloch, Airdrie and Glasgow; ‘The Autobiography of a Journeyman Shoemaker’ in The Commonwealth (Nov-Dec 1856).
‘Nugent Taillefer’, served in the 77th Foot Regiment, lived in Hounslow, pub. The Dear Old Regiment (London, 1879).
‘Two Poor Women’ (initials given as L.S.P. and M.T), A hundred new acrostics on old subjects, written by two poor women, with a preface by Mrs Greville (London, 1867). Ref Reilly (2000), 354.
? ‘Village Peasant’, Poetry, the press and the pulpit, by a village peasant (London, 1894). Ref Reilly (1994), 488.
? ‘A Working Man’, The two benchers: or, prosperity versus poverty, and other poems (1888). Ref Reilly (1994), 525.
? ‘Working Pilgrim’, The white slave’s champion: or, volunteer’s crusade against mammon and despotism; and, Songs on the march, by a working pilgrim (Edinburgh and Dublin, 1860). Ref Reilly (2000), 507.